Brief History
Home AC & its working
Components & Functionality
 

Fundamentals

Components & Functionality

Every home Air Conditioner consists of the following key components.

  1. Compressor
    This is the heart of the machine that pumps the gas through the system and keeps it under pressure.
  2. Refrigerant
    This is the gas that passes through the system. This gas has the property to pick up enormous quantity of heat. It has to be kept tightly sealed within the system without interference from dust and moisture.
  3. Evaporator Coil
    A row of copper tubes fitted within fins like a radiator, through which the refrigerant passes. This is the cool part of the system and is the indoor portion of the air conditioner.
  4. Condensor Coil
    A row of copper tubes fitted within fins, also like a radiator, through which the refrigerant passes. This is the hot part of the system and is the outer portion. This acts as the heat exchanger with the outside atmosphere.
  5. Blower
    This blows the cooled air back into the room. It is a circular device with blades.
  6. Fan
    This sucks warm air from the room and looks typically like an exhaust fan.
  7. Fan motor
    This is common to the blower and the fan and is connected to each of them at opposite ends by means of a double shaft. This can be operated at variable speeds for quick or slow, sustained cooling.
  8. Thermostat
    This device is in front of the evaporator coil and can be adjusted by means of a knob, to set the desired temperature in the room. It is set to a high and low temperature, which on being achieved will 'cut in' or 'cut out' the compressor.
  9. Control Panel
    This panel contains the knob (in case of manual mode) or PCB (in case of electronic / remote mode) and contains the thermostat knob, the power switch, the air swing switch and the fan speed controller knob.
  10. Front Panel or Grille
    This is the aesthetic portion of the air conditioner within the room and contains a return air portion that sucks in warm air and a 'throw' portion that delivers cool air.
  11. Filter
    This filters the dust particles that tend to be sucked in along with the warm air. Different types of filters are offered by various manufacturers. These are usually 'pull-out' type and have to be cleaned periodically, to prevent choking.